By Van Der Dussen
With the cave in of the Soviet Union, the re-emergence of crucial Europe and strikes in the direction of financial, financial and political union in the ecu Union, Europe within the Nineties is at a crossroads. yet what does Europe, and being ecu suggest? what sort of Europe are we construction and why? How does this new Europe relate to the Europe of the earlier? This publication places the belief of Europe in its historic context, tracing it again to the traditional Greeks and their organization of Europe with political freedom. From this start line the 1st essay exhibits how Europe turned pointed out with Christendom within the 15th-century and with "civilisation" within the 18th-century sooner than getting used by way of 19th-century reformers and reactionaries for his or her assorted political reasons. 20th century advancements are the focal point for dialogue within the final essays. a couple of "projects" for Europe are tested opposed to the history of the 2 global wars, attention is given to fresh developments in the direction of political and monetary integration, and an evaluate is obtainable of the modern relevance of the ecu inspiration.
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Extra resources for The History of the Idea of Europe
The map is aligned towards the north. Europe has become smaller than the traditional one quarter of the world. What is particularly interesting is the way in which the distribution of Christendom is shown. This is probably the first example of the cartographic localization of the small Christian community surrounded by the unbelievers who inhabit the major part of the world. Walsperger colours the Christian cities red and those of the unbelievers black. Europe is perhaps no longer as extensive as it used to be, but he is nevertheless able to colour all its cities red, in other words Christian.
It was also he who was the first to use the word europeus indicating an inhabitant of Europe (cf. Hay, 1957; 1968 edn, pp. 86-7). The influence of humanism on the concept of Europe Humanism contributed in a variety of ways to forming a concept of the solidarity of Europe. Like many terms ending in '-ism', 'humanism' is of nineteenthcentury origin. Previously, 'humanitas' and 'studia humanitatis' had been used to mean an educational programme based on the study of the works of Greek and Latin authors.
Voltaire's thesis is that despite the wars and religious discord which have afflicted it, Europe has seen the rise of a 'republique litteraire' (Adam, p. 70; cf. Chabod, p. 30). The arts and sciences reinforce one another and provide mutual support. The academies in the various states together form a European republic of artists and scholars: The English, the Germans and the French go to Leyden to study. The famous doctor Boerhaave was consulted by both the Pope and the Tsar. His pupils attracted foreigners who became doctors elsewhere.