Pollutant-Solid Phase Interactions.. Mechanisms, Chemistry, by Kassim T.A., Simoneit B.R.T. (eds.)

By Kassim T.A., Simoneit B.R.T. (eds.)

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Names and structures of phenol and substituted phenols pounds such as humic substances, lignins, and tannins which are widely distributed throughout the environment. Figure 20 shows a typical GC-MS trace of a phenol-contaminated soil sample collected in the Bitterfeld region, Germany [254]. , 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,3,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, pentachlorophenol). Wennrich et al.

Simoneit As a result of the widespread and abundant use of PAEs, they have been widely dispersed and detected in waters and sediments [232]. The toxicity or biological effects of PAEs have been reported [233, 234]; therefore, it is prudent to establish a method for precise analysis, characterization, removal, and/or bioremediation of PAEs from both aqueous and solid phase environments. An example of a phthalate ester fingerprint in the GC-MS analysis of an environmental sample is shown in Fig. 18a.

4 Amphoteric (Zwitterionic) Amphoteric surfactants (Fig. 23) are surface-active agents containing both anionic and cationic functional groups or moieties capable of carrying both ionic charges [314]. However, the term amphoteric surfactants or amphoterics is used generally to refer to materials that show amphoteric properties. The term ampholytes or ampholytic surfactants, though synonymous with amphoterics, is used to refer more specifically to surfactants which can accept or donate a proton, such as amino acids.

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