By Dr. Kamalesh Kumar
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Additional info for Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering
Subduction/collision earthquakes in India occur in the Himalayan Frontal Arc (HFA). This arc is about 2500 km long and extends from Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east. It constitutes the central part of the Alpine seismic belt. This is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. The Indian plate came into existence after initial rifting of the southern Gondwanaland in late Triassic period. Subsequently it drifted in mid-Jurassic to late Cretaceous time. The force responsible for this drifting came from the spreading of the Arabian Sea on either side of the Carisberg ridge.
About 1 lakh earthquakes of magnitude more than three hit the earth every year. According to a conservative estimate more than 15 million human lives have been lost and damage worth hundred billions of dollars has been inflicted in the recorded history due to these. Some of the catastrophic earthquakes of the world are Tangshan of China (1976, casualty > 3 lakhs), Mexico city (1985, casualty > 10,000) and North-West Turkey (August 17, 1999, casualty > 20,000). In India, casualty wise, the first three events are Kangra (>20,000), Bihar-Nepal (>10,653) and Killari (>10,000).
Explain about main plate tectonic environments with example. 5. Present wave characteristics and particle motions for different main seismic waves in tabular form. 6. Write short note on fault structure. 7. Explain about dip, strike and slip. 8. Explain about dip-slip, strike-slip and oblique-slip type of hanging wall movement. 9. Present modified Mercalli scale in a tabular form. 10. Write short note about seismograph, seismogram and seismic waves obtained from seismogram. 1 INTRODUCTION Natural disasters like earthquake, landslide, flood, drought, cyclone, forest fire, volcanic eruption, epidemic and major accidents are quite common in different parts of the globe.