By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth version Preface to 3rd variation Preface to moment version Preface to First version Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists examine? what's a sociolinguist? Why will we say an analogous factor in numerous methods? What are the various methods we are saying issues? Social elements, dimensions and reasons part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups selecting your style or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in numerous groups Language loss of life and language loss elements contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic types and multilingual countries Vernacular languages usual languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and authentic languages making plans for a countrywide professional language constructing a regular type in Norway The linguist's position in language making plans part II: Language version: specialise in clients 6. neighborhood and social dialects neighborhood version Social edition Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech variations: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech positive factors: social dialect examine Gender and social classification reasons of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded gains of speech Age and social dialect facts Age grading and language swap eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language swap edition and alter How do adjustments unfold? How will we learn language swap? purposes for language switch part III: Language version: specialize in makes use of 10. kind, context and sign up Addressee as a power on type lodging thought Context, kind and sophistication variety in non-Western societies sign in eleven. Speech services, politeness and cross-cultural conversation The features of speech Politeness and tackle varieties Linguistic politeness in numerous cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self belief interplay Gossip The linguistic building of gender The linguistic development of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and belief Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social category, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness thought Ethnography of talking Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) severe Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and purposes Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols thesaurus Index
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Contents Preface to Fourth version Preface to 3rd variation Preface to moment variation Preface to First variation Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists learn? what's a sociolinguist? Why will we say a similar factor in several methods? What are the several methods we are saying issues?
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University students in countries which use English for tertiary education, such as Tanzania, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, often find it easier to discuss their university subjects using English, for example, just as the students from Hemnesberget used standard Norwegian rather than the local dialect to discuss national politics. Not all factors are relevant in any particular context, but they can be grouped in ways which are helpful. In any situation, linguistic choices generally indicate people’s awareness of the influence of one or more of the following components: 1.
Often degrees of formality are strongly influenced by solidarity and status relationships. But not always. A very formal setting, such as a law court, typically influences language choice regardless of the personal relationships between the speakers. ■ The referential and affective function scales Referential High information content Low information content Affective Low affective content High affective content Though language serves many functions, the two identified in these scales are particularly pervasive and useful for analysis.
14 Chapter 1 What do sociolinguists study? (ii) Its primary function is to provide referential information. It is not intended to provide information on how the speaker is feeling. (b) (i) Despite the initial greeting good morning which can be used to strangers and acquaintances, the speaker clearly knows the addressee well. Two affectionate endearment terms are used (little one, pet). g. mother to child, older person to younger, nurse to young patient). ) is an attempt to elicit a response. However, it is not a request for information – the answer is self-evident since it is provided in the utterance itself.