By Simon Horobin
Книга An creation to center English An advent to heart English Книги Иностранные языки Автор: Simon Horobin , Jeremy Smith Год издания: 2003 Формат: pdf Издат.:Oxford college Press, united states Страниц: 192 Размер: 2,3 ISBN: 0195219503 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:This authoritative survey bargains a concise description of center English, the language of Chaucer, throughout the interval from 1100 to 1500. heart English is mentioned with regards to either previous and later levels within the background of English and in regard to different languages with which it got here into touch. The booklet covers the primary positive aspects of center English spelling, pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary and likewise introduces center English textual reports.
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3 Pastor. Is he commen? Then ylkon take hede to his thyng. Mak. What! ich be a yoman, I tell you, of the kyng, The self and the some, sond from a greatt lordyng, And sich. Fy on you! Goyth hence Out of my presence! I must haue reuerence. Why, who be ich? Why make ye it so qwaynt? Mak, ye do wrang. Bot, Mak, lyst ye saynt? I trow that ye lang. I trow the schrew can paynt, the dewyll myght hym hang! Ich shall make complaynt, and make you all to thwang At a worde, And tell euyn how ye doth. 1 Pastor.
It was now possible to be eloquent in English. Something similar had happened to Italian a century before; indeed, contemporaries drew parallels between the rise of English poetry and the appearance of the great Italian poets Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio. It is no accident that Geoffrey Chaucer – a royal bureaucrat, as it happens – chose to write in English for his mixed audience of courtiers and civil servants (the two categories tended to overlap). That his choice was a conscious one is indicated by the fact that Chaucer’s friend and contemporary John Gower wrote extensively in Latin (Vox Clamantis) and French (Le Miroir de l’Homme) as well as in English (the Confessio Amantis).
2. Evidence arrived at though internal reconstruction, whereby later residual elements in a language demonstrate earlier usage. For instance, there is a PDE difference between the ﬁnal consonant in house (noun) and house (verb); in the former the consonant is voiceless [s], in the latter it is voiced [z]. We know that in OE, the verb had inﬂexional endings, for example hu¯sian (inﬁnitive), cf. the noun hu¯s. Examination of occurrences of [z] in PDE words descended from OE shows that such forms emerged from intervocalic environments; [s] appears in other environments.