Aint I a Woman (Pluto Classics) by Bell Hooks

By Bell Hooks

During this vintage examine, cultural critic bell hooks examines how black girls, from the 17th century to the current day, have been and are oppressed by means of either white males and black males and via white girls. Illustrating her research with relocating own bills, Ain't I a lady is deeply severe of the racism inherent within the considered many middle-class white feminists who've didn't handle problems with race and sophistication. whereas acknowledging the clash of loyalty to race or intercourse continues to be a quandary, hooks demanding situations the view that race and gender are separate phenomena, insisting that the struggles to finish racism and sexism are inextricably intertwined.

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By 1550 the colonist s had foun d silver in northern Mexic o at Zacatecas, Guanajuato, an d Pachuca . Deposits o f silver were also uncovered a t Michoacan , Tasco, Temascaltepec , an d othe r places . I n Peru , silve r vein s wer e struc k i n th e highland area s o f Potos i an d Porco , an d ric h gol d deposit s wer e discovere d a t Chachapoyas and Carabaya. Shortly after th e discover y of the firs t silve r veins in Mexico , Viceroy Antonio de Mendoz a requeste d tha t th e authoritie s i n Spai n sen d African s becaus e "th e silver mine s ar e increasing, as each day more an d mor e ar e discovered whil e th e [Indian] slave s continue to decrease.

Chie f amon g the m wa s Bishop Bartolom e de las Casas, a membe r of the Dominican religiou s orde r wh o became enrage d a t Spanish cruelt y towar d the Indians. H e was not the first, however, to publicly chastis e his fellow Spaniards. That hono r fel l to Fria r Antonio d e Montesinos. I n 1511 , he denounced th e mis treatment o f the Indian s i n Hispaniol a an d questione d th e mora l basis for their inhumane treatment . Although th e Crow n introduce d measure s t o protec t th e Indians , o r a t least reduce the level of their mistreatment , these laws were never adequately enforced.

According to a 155 2 law, slaves who took u p arm s agains t a Spaniar d i n Mexic o wer e liable t o receiv e on e hundre d lashes in addition t o having a nail driven throug h thei r hands. Slaves would have their hands cut off if they repeated the offense . As the slave populations increased , colonial authorities imposed a series of controls on almost ever y aspect of the Africans' public lives. Although the details varied, slaves were forbidden to be out o f doors afte r dark , and could not trave l freel y or gather in large groups except for religious purposes.

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