After redemption: Jim Crow and the transformation of African by John M. Giggie

By John M. Giggie

After Redemption fills in a lacking bankruptcy within the background of African American lifestyles after freedom. It takes at the greatly neglected interval among the tip of Reconstruction and international warfare I to envision the sacred global of ex-slaves and their descendants dwelling within the quarter extra densely settled than the other via blacks residing during this period, the Mississippi and Arkansas Delta. Drawing on a wealthy variety of neighborhood memoirs, newspaper bills, photos, early blues track, and lately unearthed Works venture management documents, John Giggie demanding situations the normal view that this period marked the low element within the smooth evolution of African-American faith and tradition. Set opposed to a backdrop of escalating racial violence in a area extra densely populated via African american citizens than the other on the time, he illuminates how blacks tailored to the defining gains of the post-Reconstruction South-- together with the expansion of segregation, teach go back and forth, purchaser capitalism, and fraternal orders--and within the strategy dramatically altered their non secular rules and associations. Masterfully examining those disparate parts, Giggie's learn situates the African-American event within the broadest context of southern, spiritual, and American background and sheds new gentle at the complexity of black faith and its position in confronting Jim Crow.

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Extra info for After redemption: Jim Crow and the transformation of African American religion in the Delta, 1875-1915

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27 A steep line of bluffs that reaches heights of two hundred feet defines the Mississippi Delta. 29 During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it was a rural region but not an isolated one because on or near its perimeter sat major towns and small cities, including Little Rock and Pine Bluff, Arkansas; Memphis, Tennessee; and Jackson, Mississippi. 31 A few independent black churches existed during the antebellum era, but most slaves worshipped under the watchful eye of the master and white preacher or, more privately, by themselves in hush harbors and secret meeting places.

As they had during the antebellum era, steamboats and larger flat-bottomed watercrafts trafficked the Mississippi River while rafts, keel boats, and skiffs moved men and materials across the hundreds of smaller rivers, creeks, lakes, and bayous that veined the region. Fierce competition between riverboat companies historically kept freight rates down and ensured that bigger towns and plantations near a large body of water received regular visits. In the 1870s, Pine Bluff enjoyed biweekly service up the Arkansas River to Little Rock and weekly service for the longer run to Memphis.

Francis, White, Arkansas, and Red Rivers, sliced deep vales and gorges into the Lower Gulf Coastal Plain. 23 Over the course of thousands of years, the regular flooding of the Mississippi River and its tributaries created a thick, deep, loamy soil that was as fertile as any in the world. 24 ‘‘Every few years it rises like a monster from its bed and pushed over its banks to vex and sweeten the land it has made. ’’25 Percy’ soil was the perfect setting for raising crops, especially in the Delta’s subtropical climate.

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