A Syntax of the Nivkh Language: The Amur dialect by Vladimir P. Nedjalkov, Galina A. Otaina, Ekaterina Gruzdeva,

By Vladimir P. Nedjalkov, Galina A. Otaina, Ekaterina Gruzdeva, Emma Š. Geniušienė

This quantity, initially released in Russian in 2012, is likely one of the few greater works on Nivkh (Gilyak), an underinvestigated endangered Paleosiberian language-isolate, that experience seemed in recent times. it's a descriptive grammar in line with broad language information and supplemented with the authors’ experiments and sophisticated research, geared toward elucidating a few moot issues of the hugely particular Nivkh syntax, and with quantitave info. It makes a speciality of syntactic and semantic different types of verbs and their aspectual and temporal features, a variety of teams of verbal grammatical morphemes, using finite and non-finite verb varieties, and particularly on various converbs, sentence forms, note order, two-predicate structures, relative clauses, direct and oblique speech, textual content constitution and unity. The typological services and insights of V.P. Nedjalkov and the local intuitions of G.A. Otaina mix so as to add price to this quantity. The e-book could be of curiosity to experts in morphosyntax, typology, basic linguistics and indigenous languages.

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There are no adjectives in Nivkh. Meanings like ‘be strong’ , ‘be gray’ are expressed by qualitative verbs. Possessive meanings, as in ‘father’s knife’ , ‘our house’ , are expressed by pre-posed nouns (personal pronouns) in the nominative case, in the attributive position (see (1b), (1d)). 2 Syntax The neutral word order is “subject (often omitted) – direct object – predicate”; “attribute – head word”. A typical Nivkh sentence contains one finite predicate which may be preceded by one or several (rarely more than five) converbs.

Thus, if (3a)–(3c) are uttered without a pause after the subject the meaning of these sentences changes: the pronoun imŋ ‘they’ becomes an attribute of the direct object, the subject being implied by the prior context. … imŋ+ŋa+ro-d̦. … imŋ+ʁan+do-d̦. ’ . g. ADV:3PL, as in (5). chapter 3 Free and bound word variants As is shown in Example (3), the verb ro- ‘help’ has variants ro-/-to-/-do-. Of these three variants, the native speakers understand only the first one if it is used without an object.

1 Two-member variants: j-/i-/e- alternate with Ø or -hThis type covers most of the transitives with the initial j- (about 70 verbs) and several transitives with the initial i- and e-: (34) a. If j-aγaγ-d̦. If p‘-ətək+aγaγ-d̦. : (35) a. If j-e-d̦. 2 Two-member variants with consonant alternation In this instance, the alternation considered in case 1 is complicated by the prefixed i- or e- in the free variant. ’ There are a number of such verbs. Compare also the variants of the verb i-rmə-/-řmə-/-t‘mə- ‘get/cross over a hilltop’, ‘cross a river’, where both the voiced and the voiceless variants are retained.

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