By John L. Hayes
Publication through Hayes, John L.
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Extra resources for A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts
For convenience sake, the Because of the typographic determinative for " g o d is transliterated as a superscript d: d-. difficulties of printing superscripts, some publications instead print the determinatives on the same print-line, connected by a period: ski. In transliteration, signs comprising one word are linked by hyphens: kalam-ma, dieir-ra-ni, and so on. It is not always easy, however, to determine what is a "word" in Sumerian; this problem is discussed in Lesson One. Determinatives are an exception; no hyphens are used.
Occasionally, even the standard sign catalogues (discussed in Appendix Three) may differ among is not the sign transliterated here The each other. Thus the sign listed by Labat as most important such discrepancies in readings will be noted as encountered. The English equivalent, "Ur", derives from 1% kasdiml, "Ur of the Chaldees", from the Hebrew scriptures. a m),m3 m5 m5. bad3 The PSD translates this as "wall", "fortification". Its normal Akkadian equivalent is @,glossed by the CAD as "1. city wall, fortification wall, 2.
A different system begins with the last vowel, moving back to the first. The presence of these two different systems, along with mechanical mistakes in printing, can cause problems in determining what the cuneiform sign actually was. Using subscripts obviates against this difficulty. For example, there are several signs with the value of /kala/. , kala4, and so on. Occasionally, new values are proposed for signs. For example, it has been suggested that the =-sign also has a reading /bull, in addition to its reading as /zar/.